从严子陵到黄公望:富春江的文化意象——《富春山居图》的前传

时间:2019-09-22 20:54:54 | 作者:娱乐前沿网 | 点击: 161 次

摘要 黄公望为何要画富春江?《富春山居图》为何画了多年?根据黄公望与《富春山居图》跋几乎同时撰写的另一题跋,黄氏心中“富春江”的涵义应与诗歌传统相关。从宋代的《严陵集》与明代的《钓台集》这两部重要的“富春江”文学总集中,可以看出,始于东汉高士严子陵的传说如何成为富春江传写不衰的核心价值,而谢灵运、沈约、孟浩然、李白的山水文学如何凝聚意象、奠定传统,造成“文本化山水”(The Textual Land-scape),引发了后世以美启真、以诗证理的丰富话语;宋代范仲淹给予严子陵的新论述,即道德主体的自觉及其理学化的山水。在异族统治的新格局下,黄公望以其杰作重新诠释了富春江意象,将“士与君如何相处”的传统焦虑进一步“去问题化”,同时也将伦理主体的自觉进一步“去主体化”,变成“士如何在此世与自己相处、与宇宙相处”的新问题。虽君、士双遣,人我俱化,然大音希声,宝相庄严,完成富春江意象的点睛之笔。结论是,并非《山居图》是否实写严子陵,而是二者之间的神似,即道高于势,确立中国士的尊严。这是传统知识人的大心结。《山居图》在中国文化史上的价值,亦由此而更有意义。惟其如此,方能真正打通思想史与艺文之间的联系。
Abstract: Why did HUANG Gong-wang paint Fu-chun River? Why did the painting of Dwelling in the Fu-chun Mountains take up so many years? According to HUANG Gong-wang’s another annotation written in the same period, the connotation of “Fu-chun River” in HUANG’s mind is related to the tradition of poetry. From the two important collected literary works, that is, The Collected Works of Yanling in the Song Dynasty and The Collected Works of Diaotai in the Ming Dynasty, we can see that the legend about the eminent person YAN Zi-ling starting from the East Han Dynasty became the long-lasting core value in the writings of Fu-chun River, the landscape literature represented by XIE Ling-yun, SHEN Yue, MENG Hao-ran and LI Bai condensed images, established traditions and created the “textual landscape”, which triggered later generations’ enriched discourse seeking for truth in beauty and embodying principles in poetry, and FAN Zhong-yan’s new statements about YAN Zi-ling represented the self-consciousness of the moral subject and the understanding of landscape from a perspective of Neo-Confucianism. In the new situation of being ruled by aliens, HUNAG Gong-wang provided a new interpretation of the image of Fu-chun River with his masterpiece: with the dissolution of the ethical subject, scholars and literati’s traditional anxiety of getting along with rulers was transformed into the new issue of their getting along with themselves and the universe. With the discard of rulers and scholars and literati on the one hand and the dissolution of self and others on the other, the image of Funchun River achieves a super realm of Dao. It is not the point whether HUANG’s painting is really about YAN Zi-ling; rather, it is the spiritual similarity between the painting of Dwelling and YAN Zi-ling, i.e., Dao’s being more significant than worldly power, that secure the honor and dignity of scholars and literati. In this way, we can understand better the value of the painting of Dwelling in the cultural history of China, and it is also in this way that we can see the